Listed here you’ll find every morsel of information I’ve been able to get my grubby hands on that explains what gender variance, transsexuality and transgenderism is and how/why it occurs. As I find new stuff, I’ll post about it in the main blog and update here, so check back often, ’cause there’s always some new finding or research report or discussion that makes its way on here.

Also, if you come across resources that I’ve not listed, please do tell. You can either post about it as a comment or send me an email and I’ll include it ASAP.

You’ll notice that many of the linked resources discuss the same findings as others. These are included to present different perspectives on the same data, and also to target different audiences. Please also note that many of the research reports linked here are behind pay-to-view journal sites, and so only the abstract and results may be viewed freely. The full story, unfortunately, you’ll have to subscribe to the journal for.

Just on a last note, this is a real grab bag of stuff, from authoritative through to badly researched BS, I’m quite sure. It’s simply the stuff I’ve read and come across, so do your own reading, draw your own conclusions, and reference stuff at your own peril.

UPDATE : [Brandon Keim] Beauty Affects Men’s and Women’s Brains Differently (23 feb 2009, Wired News), added to “gender differentiation” section. ~ 24 February 2009.


general research on gender variance

Overarching studies and general research looking at the causes, indications and effects of gender variance.

female biology and sexuality

Studies on female sexuality, gender, biology and other subjects that might be of relevance to people who are gender variant.

male biology and sexuality

Studies on male sexuality, gender, biology and other subjects that might be of relevance to people who are gender variant.

  • Since I’m female I’ve not paid as much attention to male biology, but I’ve included this category for future updates.


General research on the biological and mental changes that take place before and during human puberty.

gender differentiation

General research on the biological differences between human males and females and how those differences come about.

gender socialisation

This research focusses on how social interaction and development, especially at an early age, influences the formation of gender roles and expectations, social ability and other characteristics. Also included are so-called “nature-vs-nurture” studies that posit purely environmental rather than biological origins for gender.

natural gender variance

There is a strong argument that variation in sexual preference and gender identity is a natural phenomenon, and indeed, homosexuality and gender variance are observed in wild populations right along with intersex, and at least as far back as we’ve recorded history, transgender and homosexual people have been known to varying degrees.

biomass pollution

Scientists are observing unprecedented levels of deformity and intersex conditions due to widespread pollution. Marine animals especially have been hard-hit due to high levels of estrogen-mimicking chemicals. Humankind is also not immune to this phenomena, with male sperm counts in continual decline and undermasculinesed boys being born more and more often.

diethylstilbetrol (des)

Diethylstilbetrol was a medication widely prescribed from the early 1940’s until the mid 80’s as a menopause control and general hormone replacement therapy, and as an anti-miscarriage medication for pregnant women. It has since been found to be a powerful teratogen, causing widespread deformity of children born to mothers who were exposed to or used it during pregnancy. More interestingly, so-called DES-sons have a 20-fold increase of hypospadia, where the urethral tube opens on the underside rather than at the tip of the penis, and have demonstrated greatly increased incidences of gender dysphoria/transsexuality.

brain structure

Some of the earliest research looking for the causes of transgenderism focussed on the brain structure, and specifically structures within the hypothalamus. This research is ongoing and has arguably given transgender individuals their loudest argument yet for acceptance and legal/medical recognition.


This research focusses on hormonal variations amongst transgender people, and on possible influences early hormonal variation may have on brain structure and gender identity.


Recent research into the etiology of transgenderism has focussed heavily on genetic indications, and late 2007 and 2008 have seen a number of interesting studies published that do indeed indicate a definite genetic component.


Anthropometry is the measurement and statistical sampling of physical characteristics. As it relates to transgender individuals, this research looks for typically female measurements in transwomen and typically male measurements in transmen.

asperger’s and autism

I’ve read in a few places now that asperger’s syndrome is up to four times as likely amongst transwomen as amongst the population at large. Unfortunately I’ve been unable to find any studies to corroberate this, but many of the same endocrine disrupting chemicals that get blamed for intersex and transsexual biological variation also feature in autism and aspergers. Interestingly, autism and related disorders have been theorised to be a form of a hyper-masculinized, structuring brain.

polycystic ovarian syndrome

Polycystic ovarian syndrome is an endocrine condition that affects about 5% of cisgendered women. It causes the body to produce excessive amounts of androgens, leading to masculinisation. Up to a third of female-to-male transsexuals suffer from this condition.

the effects of HRT

This research focusses on the effects that HRT have on transitioning gender variant people, both in the short term as well as long term health consequences.

body image

Body image forms a major part of Gender Identity Disorder. This research studies variations in the image transgender people have of themselves and their bodies.




4 Responses to “causes”

  1. […] what causes gender-variance […]

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